Brief History Of Pepper
Pepper generally originates from Central America. Capsicum annum is from middle America (Mexico) while Capsicum frutescens is from the northern half of south America to part of central America and Caribbean area. Pepper played a significant early role in the development of food in America[i]
FAO statistics estimate world production of capsicum peppers in 2001 at 21.3 million tonnes(t) from a harvested area of 1.6 million hectares (ha) (average yield 13.4 t/ha); China is the largest producer with 10 million t, followed by Mexico (1.9 million t) and Turkey (1.5 million t). India is probably erroneously represented with only 50,000 t. Production in tropical Africa is estimated at 1 million t, with Nigeria (715,000 t from 90,000 ha) and Ghana (270,000 t from 75,000 ha) as the largest producers. Data are presented for only 13 out of the 47 countries of tropical Africa. (The statistics for Africa does not include home farms and garden production)[ii]
Rising domestic demand, coupled with a drop in exports, continues to set the trend for the pepper market. The main suppliers of the commodity to the global market are Vietnam, India, Indonesia and Brazil; while the major destinations of its export are the US, Europe, Japan and Australia[iii].
The price of pepper in Nigeria has been subjected to seasonal fluctuation over time. In South Western Nigeria, pepper has been massively conveyed from Northern Nigeria despite the fact that it is also grown in the South West. This indicates that there is a great and urgent need for increased production of pepper in Nigeria and most especially in the South-Western Nigeria.
The domestic demand for pepper has increased over time which has resulted in the decline in the quantity of pepper being exported in several producing countries. This signifies that there is need for increase in the supply of pepper to make up for the increase in the domestic demand and to also give room for exportation.
It is worthy of note that despite the production level of pepper in Nigeria, pepper is still being imported. General increase in pepper yield in Nigeria could be enhanced by the cultivation of improved cultivars, and intensification of cultural practices.
Acceptable well known states where it is grown
The greater part of pepper production in Nigeria is undertaken in the northern areas of the country, in Kaduna, Kano, Jigawa, Katsina, Sokoto, Plateau and Bauchi states. The natural features of these regions, especially the presence of flood-prone plains and river basins and above all the development of vast irrigated lands, create conditions that greatly favour the development of this crop.
Potential yield of the crop per hectare
Fruit yield of 3–6 tonnes is expected.
The necessary inputs for successful yield including specific brand names for inputs (e.g fertilizer, pesticides, etc)
Basics things you Need to Start Pepper Farming in Nigeria
– A Fertile Land (Size depends on the scale you want to start)
– A Nursery (for preparing the pepper seeds)
– Disease Prevention and control
Plough, harrow, and make beds a week before transplanting is done. Make beds 1.0 meter wide and of any convenient length.
Transplanting seedlings on beds 1.0 meter wide and of any convenient length. The plants should be arranged in two rows on the bed. The rows are spaced 70 cm apart while the plants are spaced 50 cm apart in the rows. Water the seed tray and beds in the nursery before lifting the seedlings.
It is usual to treat nursery soil mixture with fumigant to kill pests, fungi, weeds, etc. in the soil. VAPAM is recommended at the rate of 1 liter to 20 liters of water per bed of 1 m x 10 m. When used, wet soil heavily to a depth of 15 cm and cover with palm fronds. Do not sow seeds until after 9–10 days after treatment.
In the absence of fumigants, apply heat treatment by burning trash on the beds and removing the ash.
Mixtures of alachlor (linuron plus chlobromuron) at 1.0 + 0.5 kg a.i./ha and 1.0 + 1.0kg a.i./ha respectively, and (pendimethalin plus metobromuron) at 2.0+1.0kg a.i./ha are also effective in controlling weeds with a supplintary hoe weeding. Glyphosate at the rate of 4.0L/ha should be sprayed two weeks before land preparation to control stoloniferous and rhizomatous noxious weeds.
Pepper production under irrigation Extension BulLeTin No. 206 Agric. Engineering Series No. 7 PRODUCED AND dISTRIBUTED bY National Agricultural Extension and Research Liaison Services Ahmadu Bello University Zaria
Disease and insect control.
The seedlings should be sprayed regularly with insecticides like Ambush and fungicide Diathane for control of insect and diseases before they are transplanted.
The most important pest of pepper is fruit fly (Coratitis capitata) which feeds on the fruit flesh leaving only the transparent skin. Borers (Lepidopterae spp.) are sometimes found in the fruits as well. Scales and mealy bugs occur mainly on the stems of older plants.ss
Spray every week with: Sevin 85 w.p. 10 gm/10 L of water.
A complete fertilizer such as N.P.K. 15:15:15: can be carried out about 2 weeks after transplanting at the rate of one matchbox fertilizer to two plants. Draw a circle round the base of the plant and carefully spread the fertilizer in the groove. Cover lightly with soil. The circle should be reasonably far from the stem of the plant. A distance of about 4 –7cm is all right.
The second application should be performed at 50% flowering. The application rate this is one matchbox per plant. Water the plant immediately after applying the fertilizer.?